Bladder Inflammation: A Comprehensive Guide for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

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Bladder inflammation or cystitis occurs when your bladder lining is irritated or inflamed, most commonly caused by bacterial infection. It is characterised by pain during urination, burning micturition, lower abdominal pain and sometimes hematuria (blood in urine). 

ANF Therapy®️ is a revolutionary treatment to treat bladder inflammation by resolving the symptoms and treating the underlying cause with the help of ANF Devices.

What is bladder inflammation?

According to Dr Mikel H-G Hoff, the kidney is a vital organ of your body that maintains electrolyte balance and hormone regulation. The kidney transports urine towards the bladder via the ureter—the bladder excretes urine from your body. If kidney function is affected, it causes changes in the urine pH that promote the colonisation of bacteria, resulting in bacterial infections. These bacterial infections induce inflammation in your bladder. 

Bladder inflammation, or cystitis, can affect individuals of any age, but it is especially common in women. This is due to the anatomical differences between genders; women have a shorter urethra, which is also located closer to the anus, making it easier for bacteria to enter and travel up to the bladder. According to a report, approximately 1/3 of women have had UTI by the age of 24 and ½ by the age of 32. To conclude, about 60% of women experience UTIs throughout their lives.

Types of bladder inflammation (cystitis):

There are various types of bladder inflammation or cystitis, depending upon the underlying cause. These are:

1-Bacterial cystitis:

This is the most common form of cystitis caused by the entry of bacteria into your bladder through the urethral opening and irritation of your bladder lining, resulting in bladder inflammation.

2-Radiation-induced cystitis:

Radiotherapy, a standard cancer treatment, shrinks tumours and destroys cancerous cells. However, it destroys not only cancerous cells of your body but also damages normal healthy cells, particularly in the bladder. If you are undergoing cancer treatment, this means you might experience bladder inflammation as a side effect.

3-Drug-induced cystitis:

There are certain medications, such as chemotherapeutic drugs, that can irritate your bladder lining during excretion.

4-Foreign body cystitis:

Foreign body cystitis occurs when an external object, like a Foley catheter or stent, is introduced into your bladder. These medical devices are essential for certain treatments but can irritate your bladder lining. This irritation prompts an inflammatory response, leading to bladder inflammation.

5-Chemical induced cystitis:

This form of cystitis occurs due to the use of certain chemicals, such as Chemotherapeutic agents. It can also occur when soap, gels, and dyes are used. 

What causes bladder inflammation?

Bladder inflammation is most commonly caused by bacterial infection. It targets more women than men. About 75% to 95% of bladder inflammation is caused by Escherichia coli. Other bacteria are also involved in causing bladder inflammation. These are:

  • Proteus mirabilis
  • Klebsiella pneumonia
  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus
  • Enterococci
  • Lactobacillus
  • Group B streptococci

Risk factors:

Several risk factors increase your risk of getting bladder inflammation. These risk factors include:


Women are more commonly affected than men due to the short urethra that makes bacterial entry easy into your bladder.

Factors causing urine stasis:

Multiple factors decrease your urine flow. These factors include:

  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
  • Prostate cancer
  • Urethral stricture
  • Dehydration
  • Ureteric stone
  • Neurogenic bladder
Factors increasing the rate of infection:

These factors include:

  • Improper use of antibiotics
  • Sexual intercourse
  • Hormonal imbalance
  • Use of spermicide
Factors increasing the risk of pathogen entry into your bladder:

These factors include:

  • Catheterisation
  • Stenting
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Urinary retention
Other factors include:
  • Diabetes
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Constipation
What are the symptoms of bladder inflammation?

Symptoms of bladder inflammation vary depending on the onset, underlying cause, and associated complications. However, the most common symptoms of bladder inflammation include the following:

  • Pain or burning micturition
  • Increase in urine frequency
  • A foul smell from the urine
  • Urine colour becomes dark and cloudy
  • Lower abdominal pain, particularly in flank areas
  • Fever can occur if there is pus in your bladder
  • Hematuria (red flag)
  • Pelvic discomfort
  • Vomiting

How does an ANF Therapist diagnose bladder inflammation?

ANF Therapists expertly diagnose conditions by conducting a thorough examination that includes a detailed history and physical assessment. They carefully identify any potential risk factors with the help of your previous history.


During history, your ANF Therapist will ask some questions regarding your disease to gather information and make a diagnosis. It includes:

  • Your biodata
  • How many times do you go for urination in a day?
  • Pain during urination
  • Burning during urination
  • Colour of urine
  • Do you feel a smell in your urine?
  • Previous history of catheter use
  • Previous medical illness
  • Intercourse history
  • Previous history of medications
Physical examination:

In physical examination, an ANF Therapist will examine your body and palpate your abdomen to make the diagnosis. During physical examination, you will be examined to see if there is any swelling or shape of the abdomen. After examination, he will do palpation.


During palpation, it will first superficially palpate your abdomen to check temperature and tenderness in the affected area. After that, percussion will be performed to check fluid availability in the bladder. Finally, a neurological examination will be performed to identify inflamed nerves and assess the severity of inflammation.

How does ANF Therapy®️ treat bladder inflammation?

ANF Therapy®️ treats bladder inflammation by using ANF Devices designed to remove the active inflammation in your body and activate the natural healing process. 

Dr. Mikel H-G Hoff states that the ANF Devices are meant to remove the active inflammation from the kidney, the primary source of bladder inflammation. These devices are applied to certain body areas and work by promoting your natural healing process, restrengthening your weakened neurological frequencies and removing inflammatory substances and free radicals.

ANF Therapy®️ uses innovative ANF Devices to target and alleviate bladder inflammation directly. Dr Mikel H-G Hoff states that the ANF Devices are meant to remove the active inflammation from the kidney, which is the main source of bladder inflammation.

How ANF Devices work:

Direct Application:

Devices are applied to the affected area of your body. This localised approach ensures that treatment is both targeted and effective.

Natural Healing:

The devices enhance your body’s natural healing mechanisms. By promoting recovery, they help restore your body’s innate strength.

Neurological Support:

ANF Therapy®️ aims to re-strengthen weakened neurological frequencies, which are vital for overall nerve health and function.

Elimination of Harmful Substances:

It actively removes inflammatory agents and free radicals, clearing the path for healing and relief. 

Expected Outcomes Of ANF Therapy®️:

The primary objective of ANF Therapy®️ in the management of bladder inflammation is to alleviate symptoms and improve bladder function. This frequency effectively decreases the frequency of urination, reduces abdominal discomfort, and improves the patient’s quality of life. The timeframe for achieving these outcomes can vary depending on individual patient factors, including the severity of bladder inflammation and the patient’s overall health status.

Regular follow-ups:

Regular follow-up appointments are critical to assessing the effectiveness of ANF Therapy®️. During these sessions, your therapist will make changes in the ANF Devices protocol according to symptoms, urinary functions, and overall well-being. Additionally, laboratory tests such as urinalysis or urine culture will help assess treatment results.

Start Your Journey with ANF Therapy®️ Today!

If you are suffering from bladder pain and inflammation, start your treatment with ANF Therapy®️  today! Consult a nearby ANF Therapist or find an ANF Therapist near you at to start ANF treatment for bladder inflammation.  

If you are a healthcare professional aiming to enhance your clinical practice, learn more about ANF courses and Clinical Education programs at  

How do you prevent bladder inflammation?

You can prevent your bladder inflammation by adopting these preventive measures.

  • Avoid constipation and diarrhoea
  • Drink plenty of water to void your urine
  • Urinate frequently
  • Wipe front and back after defecation to prevent the risk of bacterial entry into the urethra and vagina
  • Take showers regularly
  • Wash your skin around the genitals
  • Empty your bladder soon after the intercourse
What are the complications of bladder inflammation?

Bladder inflammation can cause several complications if it remains unaddressed. These complications are:

  • Pyelonephritis
  • Kidney failure
  • Hematuria
  • Chronic prostatitis
  • Prostatic abscess
  • Anemia
  • Infertility 

Frequently Asked Questions:

Is it safe to drink water cystitis?

Dr Mikel H-G Hoff states that it is a common misconception that one should avoid water when experiencing cystitis due to the pain associated with urination. Reducing water intake decreases the pH of the urinary tract and worsens your symptoms. Adequate water intake keeps the bladder environment less favourable to bacteria and irritation. Therefore, it’s important to drink plenty of water to manage and alleviate cystitis symptoms. 

What is the difference between UTI and bladder inflammation (UTI vs cystitis)?

Cystitis and urinary tract infections (UTIs) often present similar symptoms, including lower abdominal pain, fever, frequent urination, and a burning sensation during urination. Cystitis can be non-infectious, triggered by factors such as chemicals or medications. On the other hand, a UTI is always caused by an infection.

What are the warning signs of bladder inflammation?

The warning signs of bladder inflammation include the following:

  • Hematuria (blood or clots in urine)
  • High-grade fever
  • Lower back pain
How is bladder pain felt?

Pain or discomfort in the lower abdomen worsens when the bladder is distended or filled up with urine. You may feel bladder pain in the lower abdomen and pelvis.

Can gas cause bladder pain?

Yes, gas trapped in the abdomen can indeed lead to bladder pain. When gas accumulates, it can pressure the bladder and the surrounding tissues, causing discomfort. This pressure causes pain in your bladder.

About ANF Therapy®️

ANF Therapy®️ uses circular ANF Devices, which are applied directly on the skin after palpation and assessment by a trained ANF Therapist following the ANF Therapy®️ Method, Patented Model no. U202030252, ES1259974.

The ANF Therapy®️ purpose is the alleviation of injury and pain within minutes.

Our aim is that the patient experiences a reduction of pain and swelling, an increase in range of motion, and an improvement in quality of life related to health. Non-transdermal, non-invasive device, NO needles or chemicals are used.

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